Energy integration networks
The high cost of fossil energy has promoted the efficient use of this basic resource. The aim of our work in this field is to develop methods that make an efficient use of the energy contents of hot process streams to match the need for energy from cold process streams so as to minimize the need for external utilities such as steam and cooling water, or to minimize the total annual cost of the network. We have developed methods for the synthesis of heat exchanger networks based on pinch point principles as well as on the use of formal mathematical programming techniques; in the latter approach, the solution of a superstructure that considers all possible exchanges among streams provides an optimal network.
Serna, M. and A. Jiménez, “An Area Targeting Algorithm for the Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks”, Chemical Engineering Science, 59, 12, 2517-2520 (2004)
Serna-González, M., J.M. Ponce-Ortega and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Two-Level Optimization Algorithm for Heat Exchanger Networks Including Pressure Drop Considerations”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 43, 6766-6773 (2004)
Serna-González, M., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and J.M. Ponce-Ortega, “Targets for Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis with Different Heat Transfer Coefficients and Non-uniform Exchanger Specifications”, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 85, A10, 1447-1457 (2007)
Ponce-Ortega, J.M., M. Serna-González and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Heat Exchanger Network Synthesis Including Detailed Heat Exchanger Design Using Genetic Algorithms”. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 46, 25, 8767-8780 (2007)
Ponce-Ortega, J.M., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and I.E. Grossmann, “Optimal Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks Involving Isothermal Process Streams”. Computers and Chemical Engineering, 32, 8, 1918-1942 (2008)
Ponce-Ortega, J.M., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and I.E. Grossmann, “Simultaneous Retrofit and Heat Integration of Chemical Processes”. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 47, 15, 5512-5528 (2008)
Jiménez-Gutiérrez, A., J.M. Ponce-Ortega and M. Serna-González, “Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks Including Pressure Drop Considerations and Detailed Design of Heat Exchangers: A Review”. Trends in Heat and Mass Transfer, 11, 1-16 (2009)
Ponce-Ortega, J.M., M. Serna-González and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Synthesis of Heat Exchanger Networks with Optimal Placement of Multiple Utilities”. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 49, 6, 2849-2856 (2010)
Water integration networks
The objective of implementing mass integration techniques is the development of processes with an efficient use of water. Thus, mass integration networks provide designs with minimum fresh water consumption and wastewater disposed to the environment. The implementation of mass integration networks is part of a holistic approach that also takes into account the need for treatment of wastewater streams because of their contaminants content. Sometimes, however, the concentration of contaminants is not the only item of interest from environmental considerations, but also the properties that wastewater streams have, such as toxicity, chemical oxygen demand and pH, among others. This concept gave rise to the field of property integration as part of the development of water networks. We have formulated models for water integration networks based on the application of mathematical programming techniques, considering recycle and recycle/reuse structures. The formulation is based on the development of a superstructure, which typically yields a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model. The solution to the MINLP model provides the optimal configuration for water integration networks.
Ponce-Ortega, J.M., C. Hortua, M. El-Halwagi and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez. “A Property-Based Optimization of Direct Recycle Networks and Wastewater Treatment Processes”.ÂÂÂ AIChE Journal, 55, 9, 2329-2344 (2009).
Ponce-Ortega, J.M., M. El-Halwagi and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Global Optimization for the Synthesis of Property-Based Recycle and Reuse Networks Including Environmental Constraints”. Computers and Chemical Engineering, 34, 318-330 (2010)
Nápoles-Rivera, F., J.M. Ponce-Ortega, M. El-Halwagi and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Global Optimization of Mass and Property Integration Networks with In-Plant Property Interceptors”, Chemical Engineering Science, 65, 4363–4377 (2010)
Rubio-Castro, E., J.M. Ponce-Ortega, F. Nápoles-Rivera, M. El-Halwagi, M. Serna-González and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Water Integration of Eco-Industrial Parks Using a Global Optimization Approach”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 49, 20, 9945-9960 (2010)
Ponce-Ortega, J.M., F.W. Mosqueda-Jiménez, M. Serna-González, A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and M. El-Halwagi, “A Property-Based Approach to the Synthesis of Material Conservation Networks with Economic and Environmental Objectives”, AIChE Journal, 57, 9, 2369-2387 (2011)
Rubio-Castro, E., J.M. Ponce-Ortega, M. Serna-González, A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and M. El-Halwagi, “A Global Optimal Formulation for the Water Integration in Eco-Industrial Parks Considering Multiple Pollutants”, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 35, 8, 1558-1574 (2011)
Ponce-Ortega, J.M., F. Nápoles-Rivera, M. El-Halwagi and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “An Optimization Approach for the Synthesis of Recycle and Reuse Water Integration Networks”, Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 14, 1, 133-151 (2012)
Atilhan, S., A. Bin Mahfouz, B. Batchelor, P. Linke, A. Abdel-Wahab, F. Nápoles-Rivera, A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and M. El-Halwagi, “A Systems-Integration Approach to the Optimization of Macroscopic Water Desalination and Distribution Networks: A General Framework Applied to Qatar’s Water Resources”, Clean Technology and Environmental Policy, 14, 2, 161-171 (2012)
Nápoles-Rivera, F., J.M. Ponce-Ortega, M. El-Halwagi and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Global Optimization of Wastewater Integration Networks for Processes with Multiple Contaminants”, Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 31, 1, 449-458 (2012)
Sandate-Trejo, C., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and M. El-Halwagi, “Property Integration Models with Interdependence Mixing Operators”, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, in press (2014)
Jiménez-Gutiérrez, A., J. Lona-Ramírez, J.M. Ponce-Ortega and M. El-Halwagi, “An MINLP Model for the Simultaneous Integration of Energy, Mass and Properties in Water Networks”, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 71, 52-66 (2014)
A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, M.C. Sandate-Trejo and M. El-Halwagi, “An MINLP Model that Includes the Effect of Temperature and Composition on Property Balances for Mass Integration Networks”, Processes, 2, 675-693 (2014)
Thermally coupled distillation
Distillation is a widely used and effective separation process, but it consumes significant amounts of energy that affect the process economics. From the options to design distillation systems with an efficient use of energy, we have taken the thermally coupled distillation configurations with particular interest. Thermally coupled structures arise from the interconnection of liquid-vapor streams from two columns, such that each interconnection, or thermal coupling, eliminates the need for a condenser or reboiler of one of the columns. The result is a more energy-efficient system than the conventional distillation sequences if the design is carried out properly. We have developed methods that provide the design of thermally coupled distillation systems with minimum energy consumption. We have also conducted studies on the controllability of such systems, and shown that, contrary to original expectations, the control properties of thermally coupled systems can be similar, or sometimes even better, that those of the conventional distillation sequences.
Hernández, S. and A. Jiménez, “Design of Energy-Efficient Petlyuk Systems”, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 23, 8, 1005-1010 (1999)
Hernández, S. and A. Jiménez, “Controllability Analysis of Thermally Coupled Distillation Systems”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 38, 10, 3957-3963 (1999)
Jiménez, A., S. Hernández, A. Montoy and M. Zavala, “Control Properties of Conventional and Nonconventional Destillation Sequences”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 40, 3757-3761 (2001)
Segovia-Hernández, J.G., S. Hernández and A. Jiménez, “Control Behaviour of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences”, Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, Part A, 80, 7, 783-789 (2002)
Jiménez, A., N. Ramírez, A. Castro and S. Hernández, “Design and Energy Performance of Alternative Schemes to the Petlyuk Distillation System”, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 81, 518-524 (2003)
Ramírez, N. and A. Jiménez, «Two alternatives to thermally coupled distillation systems with side columns», AIChE Journal, 50, 11, 2971-2975 (2004)
Segovia-Hernández, J.G., S. Hernández and A. Jiménez, “Analysis of Dynamic Properties of Alternative Sequences to the Petlyuk Column”, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 29, 1389-1399 (2005)
Vaca, M., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and Rosendo Monroy-Loperena, “Design of Petlyuk Distillation Columns Aided with Collocation Techniques”. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 46, 16, 5365-5370 (2007)
Vaca, M., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and J. Alvarez-Ramírez. “A Note on the Controllability of Two Short-Cut Designs for a Class of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences”. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 48, 2283-2289 (2009)
Ruiz-Marín, L.E., N. Ramírez-Corona, A. Castro-Agüero and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Shortcut Design of Fully Thermally Coupled Distillation Systems with Postfractionator”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 50, 6287–6296 (2011)
Gutiérrez-Antonio, C., A. Briones-Ramírez and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Optimization of Petlyuk Sequences Using a Multi Objective Genetic Algorithm with Constraints”, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 35, 236-244 (2011)
Tututi-Avila, S. and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Control of Dividing-Wall Columns via Fuzzy Logic”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 52, 11, 7492-7503 (2013)
Tututi-Avila, S., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and J. Hahn, “Analysis of Multi-loop Control Structures of Divided-Wall Distillation Columns Using a Fundamental Model”, Processes, 2, 180-199 (2014)
Tututi-Avila, S., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and Juergen Hahn, “Control Analysis of an Extractive Dividing-Wall Column used for Ethanol Dehydration”, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification. 82, 88-100 (2014)
Complex distillation systems
In addition to thermally coupled distillation, there are other complex distillation systems that have called our attention, such as extractive distillation and heat-integrated distillation systems. Extractive distillation is applied for the separation of azeotropic mixtures, aided with the use of a solvent, or entrainer. Heat-integrated distillation systems are implemented by dividing the rectifying and stripping sections of a column into two different units; with a pressure adjustment for each unit the temperature profiles can be altered such that the rectifying section ends up with higher temperatures than those of the stripping section. As a result, heat integration between both sections can be accomplished, which lowers, and in the ideal case eliminates, the heat required by the condenser and the reboiler. We have developed design methods for the complex distillation systems described above, and analyzed relevant effects of their implementation.
Gutiérrez-Antonio, C. and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Method for the Design of Azeotropic Distillation Columns”. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 46, 20, 6635-6644 (2007)
Gutiérrez-Antonio, C. and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Design of Side-Stream Azeotropic Distillation Columns”. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 85, A10, 1384-1389 (2007)
Gutiérrez-Antonio, C., G. Iglesias-Silva and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Effect of Different Thermodynamic Models on the Design of Homogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Columns”. Chemical Engineering Communications, 195, 9, 1059-1075 (2008)
Cabrera-Ruiz, J., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and J.G. Segovia-Hernández, “Assessment of the Implementation of Heat-Integrated Distillation Columns for the Separation of Ternary Mixtures”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 50, 4, 2176-2181 (2011)
Mascote-Pérez, D., A. Sánchez-Hijar, M.I. Fernández-Pastrana, N. Ramírez-Corona and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Insights on the Dynamic Behavior of Thermally Coupled Distillation Columns Implemented in Processes with Recycles”, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, in press (2014)
Ramírez-Corona, N., Natanael Ek and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “A Method for the Design of Distillation Systems Aided by Ionic Liquids”, Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 87, 1-8 (2015)
Inherently safer designs
Safety is clearly an important factor for the operation of chemical processes. The interest has been more relevant in the light of unfortunate incidents that have led to accidents with loss of human lives and health affectation. The design of chemical processes has been typically carried out independently from safety considerations, such that an analysis of risk and effects is developed once the design has been developed. However, the design decisions involving equipment selection, use of solvents and operating conditions may have a remarkable effect on the safety properties of the system. Our interest has been to develop methodologies that take into account safety considerations from the design step of the process. Through the implementation of risk analysis methods we have developed design strategies for inherently safer designs. Such methods have been applied to problems involving conventional distillation, multi-effect distillation, extractive distillation and optimal plant location.
We have extended our applications to full process flowsheets. Appropriate metrics have been integrated into a design approach that includes economic, environmental and inherent safety components. Processes for the conversion of shale/natural gas to methanol and ethylene have been subjected to this approach, in which conflicts between two or among all of the three metrics have been observed. We have developed a method that reconciles such conflicts, and extensions to that approach are part of our efforts.
El-Halwagi, A.M., C. Rosas, J.M. Ponce-Ortega, A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, M.S. Mannan and M.M. El-Halwagi, “Multi-Objective Optimization of Biorefineries with Economic and Safety Objectives”, AIChE Journal, 59, 7, 2427-2434 (2013)
Medina-Herrera, N., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and M. Sam Mannan, “Development of Inherently Safer Distillation Systems”, Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 29, 225-239 (2014)
Medina-Herrera, N., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and I.E. Grossmann, “A Mathematical Programming Model for Optimal Layout Considering Quantitative Risk Analysis”, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 68, 165-181 (2014)
Medina-Herrera, N., I.E. Grossmann, M. Sam Mannan and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “An Approach for Solvent Selection in Extractive Distillation Systems Including Safety Considerations”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 53, 30, 12023-12031 (2014)
Biorefineries have been considered as an alternative to production processes based on the chain of fossil fuels. Chemicals such as ethanol have been subject to research efforts in order to develop effective production processes from biomass feedstocks. In addition to a conversion step, bioprocesses involve additional stages such as pretreatment, separation and purification. We have been involved in several projects dealing with biorefineries. One of them is the proper integration of the processing steps for the design of efficient biorefineries. Another one consists in the application of process integration techniques to improve the process efficiency. Finally, we have collected important technical data related to biorefinery processes that allow the formulation of a superstructure that transforms biomass feedstocks into value-added products, whose solution provides the optimal industrial structure for a given region of interest.
Bao, B., D.K.S. Ng, D.H.S. Tay, A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and M. El-Halwagi, “A Shortcut Method for the Preliminary Synthesis of Process-Technology Pathways: An Optimization Approach and Application for the Conceptual Design of Integrated Biorefineries”, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 35, 8, 1374-1383 (2011)
Conde-Mejía, C., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and M. El-Halwagi, “A Comparison of Pretreatment Methods for Bioethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Materials”, Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 9, 3, 189-202 (2012)
Conde-Mejía, C., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and M.M. El-Halwagi, “Assessment of Combinations between Pretreatment and Conversion Configurations for Bioethanol Production”, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 1, 8, 956-965 (2013)
Uses of shale gas
The recent discoveries of shale gas have promoted a renovated interest in the gas processing industry. A current problem is the search for suitable processes that can transform this basic resource into energy and chemical products. Development policies should be aided by proper system analysis studies on the shale gas industry. We have been involved in the design of processes for the production of chemicals from shale gas. For instance, we have developed studies on the production of methanol and ethylene from shale gas. Economic considerations as well as issues such as environmental implications and water-energy nexus have been considered. Given that the shale industry is an emerging industry, studies of this nature could be particularly valuable for the selection of alternatives to make a proper use of shale gas and the development of processes to carry out the required transformations.
Martínez, D. Y., A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, P. Linke, K.J. Gabriel, M.M.B. Noureldin and M.M. El-Halwagi, “Water and Energy Issues in Gas-to-Liquid Processes: Assessment and Integration of Different Gas-Reforming Alternatives”, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 2, 216-225 (2014)
Gabriel, K. J., M. Noureldin, M. M. El-Halwagi, P. Linke, A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez and D. Y. Martínez, “Gas-to-Liquid (GTL) Technology: Targets for Process Design and Water-Energy Nexus», Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, 5, 49-54 (2014)
Gabriel, K., P. Linke, A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, D. Y. Martínez, M. Noureldin and Mahmoud El-Halwagi, “Targeting on the Energy-Water Nexus in Gas-to-Liquid Processes”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 53, 7087-7102 (2014)
Julián-Durán, L.M., A.P. Ortiz-Espinoza, M.M. El-Halwagi and A. Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “Techno-economic Assessment and Environmental Impact of Shale Gas Alternatives to Methanol”, ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, 2, 10, 2338-2344 (2014)
Intensified processes such as dividing-wall distillation columns have shown its advantages of energy and capital investment reductions. What was needed was a methodology that takes a conventional, full flowsheet and transforms it into a more compact one with a reduced, or minimum, number of pieces of equipment, i.e. an intensified process. We have been working on developing a methodology that provides a gradual transformation of a flowsheet based on standard pieces of equipment into one with a minimum number of units. The gradual approach allows the evaluation of partially- and fully-intensified structures from different perspectives, including economic, sustainability and inherent safety factors. We are extending our initial efforts to provide a more general procedure that would allow the intensification of process based on different types of chemical reactions and separation processes.
Castillo-Landero, Arick, Andrea P. Ortiz-Espinoza and Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez, “A Process Intensification Methodology Including Economic, Sustainability and Safety Considerations”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 58, 15, 6080-6092 (2019)
Ortiz-Espinoza, Andrea Paulina, Vasiliki Kazantzi, Fadwa Eljack, Arturo Jiménez-Gutiérrez, Mahmoud M. El-Halwagi and Nikolaos Kazantzis, “A Framework for Design Under Uncertainty Including Inherent Safety, Environmental Assessment and Economic Performance of Chemical Processes”, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 58, 13239-13248 (2019)